INTRODUCCIÓN DE “BECOMING A LEADER, THE ANNAPOLIS WAY” W. BRAD JOHNSON Y GREGORY P. HARPER

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4. BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY

11. anyplace in the world. Yes, our graduates often go on to assume leadership roles in government and industry, but they must always begin their careers leading military personnel—sometimes into battle. And sometimes our graduates lose their lives in service to country before they have been gone from us for long. On the morning of September 11, 2001, I (WBJ) had just dismissed my first class and was en route to my second class of the day when a shaken colleague informed me of the attacks on the World Trade Center towers. When I entered my classroom, I managed to get CNN on the big projection screen. I watched events unfold, including the subsequent attack on the Pentagon, with my 20 stunned students. Fourteen of those killed that fateful morning (pilots, executives, and Pentagon personnel) were USNA graduates. In fact, the captain of the American Airlines flight that crashed into the Pentagon was Chic Burlingame, a member of the same Class of 1971 as the fleet commanders we already mentioned. As I surveyed the carnage on the screen juxtaposed with the bright young offi- cers-to-be in my classroom that morning, I was troubled by the conviction that many of them would soon be participating in a military response of some sort. They would be going to war. It was likely that some of them would not be returning. In fact, the entire history of the Naval Academy is punctuated and measured by periods of military conflict and world war. Since 1845, the Academy has been impacted by approximately one war every 20 years. In each of these military conflicts, midshipmen and graduates of USNA have been actively involved. In some instances, the Academy’s schedule has drastically intensified in order to meet wartime demands for new naval officers. During World War II, for example, the USNA curricu- lum was compressed to three years. Although various facets of education were economized during these years, graduates of this era were imbued with the same strong leadership skills and virtues. Most recently, our graduates have gone directly into training and subsequent combat over the skies, on the ground, under the seas, and off the shores of Afghanistan and Iraq. During time of war or threat of action, the Acad- emy’s mission is painted in stark relief. Students and faculty alike appre- ciate the important nature of our business and the critical importance of learning to lead well. INTRODUCTION 7

20. In our humble opinion, USNA is simply tops when it comes to turn- ing out leaders. We hope our experiences have combined to make us able guides in the territory of shaping leaders. We hope the lessons we share in the pages that follow make the task of building leaders for your own organization—or becoming a stronger leader yourself—more transparent, rational, and applicable. BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 16

17. embarrassed to claim expertise when it comes to building leaders. Others lack a view of the field of leadership or experience in producing leaders with a track record of success. This is not the case at Navy. Leader building is the bedrock of what we do. Creating the finest leaders in the military and the country at large is what we are all about. After more than a cen- tury and a half, and after countless worldwide conflicts and successful naval operations, we are convinced of one thing: Naval Academy graduates are prepared to lead. At USNA we have learned that to be successful, leader development cannot be accidental or incidental; successful leader development is delib- erate and intentional. We understand that leadership is complicated, yet we are unabashed in our assertion that we create leaders. Excellent leadership does not come easily to most. Sometimes painful, it requires profound effort and commitment. Learning to lead often requires a few notable fail- ures and inevitable periods of self-doubt. Leadership is not the result of good genes, good luck, or divine intervention (though we suppose any of these factors might help). Yes, IQ and leader-oriented personality traits help make leading easier, but these are not enough. Leadership competence requires training, modeling, and frequent experience “trying on” or prac- ticing the various skills inculcated in class, in readings, and in lectures. We see our share of “natural” leaders come through the gates at Annapolis, but even this fortunate minority requires direction; their inherent leader skills require honing and polishing. Although nobody graduates from UNSA with an academic major in lead- ership, neither does anyone graduate from USNA without proving himself or herself capable of leading well. The father of the American Navy, John Paul Jones (now interred in the basement of the USNA chapel), once described the qualities of the naval officer USNA endeavors to produce in this way: He [a leader] should be the soul of tact, patience, justice, firm- ness, and charity. No meritorious act of a subordinate should escape his attention or be left to pass without its reward, even if the reward is only a word of approval. Conversely, he should not be blind to a single fault in any subordinate, though, at the same time, he should be quick and unfailing to distinguish error from malice, thoughtlessness from incompetency, and well- meant shortcoming from heedless or stupid blunder. INTRODUCTION 13

9. and most effective young leaders in the country today. Graduates from earlier generations hold positions of command in the fleet, as well as positions of significant leadership in government and business. For a recent example, consider that during Operation Enduring Free- dom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, three members of the USNA class of 1971 commanded the three naval fleets directly involved in those wars. Vice Admiral (VADM) Scott Fry was Commander, Sixth Fleet; VADM Tim Keating was Commander, Fifth Fleet; and VADM Jim Metzger was Commander, Seventh Fleet. Although this is not the first time that mem- bers of the same Academy class were fleet commanders, it is the first time members of the same class commanded three fleets at the same time. I (GPH) was their classmate when our leadership skills were being molded. As you can imagine, the Class of 1971 was very proud of their accom- plishments and great leadership in the war on terrorism. During another recent world event, the EP-3 incident in China, Academy grads were again directly involved in primary leadership roles. Deputy Secretary of State Dick Armitage, Ambassador to China Joe Prueher, and ADM Denny Blair, CINCPAC, all were deeply involved in the negotiations to release the crew and plane. These former midship- men epitomize the last part of the mission statement of the Naval Acad- emy: “...in order to provide graduates who are dedicated to a career of naval service and have potential for future development in mind and character to assume the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship, and government.” THE ANNAPOLIS WAY The important question is this: How can modern day civilian organizations take USNA’s key leader development lessons and apply them successfully in honing their own talent? And how can individual leaders, most of whom will never be midshipmen at the Naval Academy, learn the crucial compo- nents of combat leadership imbued at USNA? These questions prompted us to write this book. Our mission is simple: to translate the salient strands of the leadership development program at USNA into a set of straightforward and applied lessons for managers and organizational leaders. In this guide INTRODUCTION 5

8. intelligent, impeccably honest, highly efficient, interpersonally savvy, and deeply committed to the mission of your organization may seem down right impossible. But wait. Indulge in a bit of fantasy for a moment and imagine what it would be like if you could carefully select your new managerial talent from a gargantuan pool of the nation’s most talented young men and women. Then imagine that you could send these young people to a four- year leadership-training institute designed to prepare them to become high- performing leaders in your organization. Imagine that you could bring substantial resources to bear on the task, and that the institute’s sole mis- sion was to polish and hone these young leaders morally, mentally, and physically to assume the rigors of command in the organization. And imag- ine the benefits to the company of generating roughly a thousand of these well-trained, competent, and highly loyal leaders each year. In fact, this fantasy is reality for at least one major American organiza- tion. Thanks to several early Navy visionaries and a terrible leadership debacle at sea (more about this in a minute), this dream has actually been reality in the United States since 1845. An intensive leadership laboratory designed to take some of the most talented young people in our nation and shape them into profoundly effective leaders does exist. We refer, of course, to the United States Naval Academy. For more than 150 years, where the Severn River joins the Chesapeake Bay in Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval Academy has been preparing officers to lead in the Navy and Marine Corps. In fact, building exceptional leaders for the fleet, the government, and the nation is what USNA is all about. The undergraduate college of the naval service, USNA grants bachelor of science degrees in a variety of majors to the approximately 1000 graduating officers each year. But graduates receive a good deal more than a degree and a commission as an officer in the Navy or Marine Corps at graduation. A common refrain around the “yard” (campus) at USNA goes something like this: Every grad- uate of USNA receives a degree in leadership . Through a profoundly rigorous regimen of scholarly courses, military training, athletic participation, sum- mer “cruises” on naval ships and operations with the Marines, and through the myriad opportunities and demands for leadership of peers and subor- dinates, new Naval Academy graduates are simply among the best prepared BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 4

18. More simply, President Harry Truman, a strong advocate of USNA, thought of leadership as “that quality which can make other men [and women] do what they do not want to do and like it.” In our courses and applied leadership training experiences at USNA, we work to inculcate future officers with knowledge of themselves, others, and the demands of various situations. We work on moral responsibility, self-discipline, judgment, analytical ability, communication skill, honor, integrity, and loyalty. We deliberately set about creating naval officers who have mastered the art of influencing and directing others and creating a vision that spurs followers to reach peak performance. We want officers who have both technical expertise and the proven capacity for applying this expertise to good effect. Although USNA is among the most academically challenging of all undergraduate institutions, it is USNA’s reputation as a laboratory for the next generation of leaders that gives the institution its international reputation. In the end, our organization, like yours, will rise or fall on the quality of its leaders. THE GOUGE Becoming a Leader the Annapolis Way is a guide for those who want to build leaders in any organization. Even if your leaders are not destined to com- mand multibillion-dollar naval vessels, fly bombing sorties, or lead platoons of Marines into combat, we believe that the lessons for leadership learned by all USNA midshipmen will be of value to your personnel. The leader- ship lessons contained in this guide can also be self-applied. We hope that you find them useful in your own effort to become a more effective and productive leader. Throughout this book, we attempt to distill the key ingredients of excellent leadership. We have taken the best leadership lessons from the four-year curriculum at the Naval Academy and summarized them for immediate use. This book will give you an insider’s look at how leader- ship can be nurtured and developed, and how great men and women can become competent leaders through hard work and attention to detail. In the pages that follow we cover the making of leaders, the importance of commitment, learning to follow, character development, creation of BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 14

7. and refused his early release: “They have taught you too well, McCain! They have taught you too well!” THE NATION’S LEADERSHIP LABORATORY In 2003 Americans watched in dismay as major U.S. companies crashed and burned in the wake of ethics scandals, illegal behavior, and mismanagement. Many organizations are reeling from declining retention of managerial tal- ent, and still others appear adrift when it comes to crafting a vision that fol- lowers can believe in. So what’s wrong with business today? War, terrorism, and recession aside, what’s missing at the heart of American businesses and organizations? Some—your authors included—would say that the missing ingredient is competent leadership . In fact, we propose that the absence of competent and effective leadership has created a vacuum when it comes to vision, direction, and integrity in many organizations—both local and multinational. The impact of incompetent leadership can be both insidi- ous (e.g., steadily climbing turnover, demoralized employees, declining product quality) and catastrophic (e.g., scandal-ridden bankruptcies, fatali- ties in employees or consumers). But what causes incompetent leadership? Some leaders lack the necessary character virtues to lead well. Smart, well-trained, and tenacious, these lead- ers nonetheless fail when it comes to utterly essential moral habits such as integrity, prudence, and genuine caring. In other cases, moral men and women have poorly developed intellectual, personality, or emotional abilities. These deficits are evident when they try to lead. Send the cognitively dull, personally arrogant, or emotionally cut-off employee to as many “leadership” workshops as you want to, but you are not likely to make this person a fine leader. Many would-be leaders simply lack the tools to lead. They have not been equipped through training and experience. Blessed with the requisite virtues and abilities, these leaders now need to be trained, nurtured, and care- fully developed in the leader role. So what are the chances of finding a leader with the virtues, abilities, and focused leadership skills required for success in the world of business today? Almost none you say? Sadly, we agree that finding excellent leaders is difficult. Worse, finding outstanding junior leaders who are remarkably INTRODUCTION 3

10. to leadership the Annapolis way, we offer a crash course in becoming a leader the way generations of our nation’s naval officers have learned to lead. Of course, reading this book will not earn you a commission in the Navy or Marine Corps, nor do we promise that our approach to building leaders for the fleet will match your circumstances. But we do promise to tell you like it is. We’ll introduce you to our approach to developing officers. We hope these leadership lessons can be employed immediately in your organi- zation’s quest to develop outstanding talent. THE MISSION It’s all about mission. Sure, the Naval Academy gets its pick of students, the best teaching faculty in the country, and top-notch (and often combat- wizened) military instructors. Sure, USNA has the financial resources to ensure that midshipmen get the latest when it comes to cutting-edge equipment and technological training. Yet these important ingredients are only small pieces of a complicated leader-development package. When it comes to putting it all together and orchestrating the component parts into a high-functioning leader development organization, it’s the USNA mission that allows thousands of fac- ulty, military officers, staff, and enlisted service personnel to work in unison. Here is the singular mission of the United States Naval Academy: To develop midshipmen morally, mentally, and physically, and to imbue them with the highest ideals of duty, honor, and loy- alty in order to provide graduates who are dedicated to a career of naval service and have potential for future development in mind and character to assume the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship, and government. Brief but clear, this mission puts us all on the same page. Professors, coaches, and company officers are constantly called to account for them- selves and their training activities in light of this mission. The question is this: How is this course, this duty, or this experience helping to develop midshipmen and build future leaders? At USNA, our mission is a sobering one. We produce leaders who, on orders from the commander-in-chief, are prepared to fight and win wars BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 6

13. about winning the Heisman Trophy was the pride it brought to our Navy football team in 1963 and to the entire class of 1965 at the Naval Academy. It was not my trophy; it was the team’s trophy and my class’s trophy.” THE PRODUCT At Navy our mission is impressive in its clarity and pith, but a mission is only as impressive as the results it inspires. “So what has USNA actually achieved?” you ask. Over the years, the Naval Academy has turned out 1 U.S. president, 18 members of Congress, 4 state governors, 4 secretaries of the Navy, 1 secretary of the Air Force, 3 chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 25 Chiefs of Naval Operations, 73 Medal of Honor awardees, 2 Nobel Prize awardees, 51 astronauts, 33 Rhodes Scholars, 10 Marshal Scholars, 74 Olmsted Scholars, and 619 Burke Scholars, not to mention the major- ity of the Navy’s flag officers (admirals). Not bad for a small school that began with 50 students and even today graduates 1000 or fewer students per year. Our products include leaders like former president Jimmy Carter, Sen- ator John McCain, NBA star David Robinson, NFL star Roger Staubach, astronaut Alan Shepard, Vietnam prisoner of war Vice Admiral James Stockdale, and famed WW II Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. Even more impressive than these famous personalities, however, are the thousands of historically anonymous but intensely loyal officers who have graduated from USNA and gone on to serve the country with distinction. These men and women have been leaders in the truest sense—often lead- ing subordinates into hostile waters, dangerous skies, or unnamable foreign lands as commanders of ships or submarines, pilots, or special forces offi- cers; leaders who understand how to commit to a mission and inspire fol- lowers to get the job done. STARTING WITH THE RIGHT STUFF In order to generate products such as these, we admittedly stack the deck when it comes to selection. “Plebes” (first-year Academy students) are some of the very brightest (and toughest) high school graduates in the country INTRODUCTION 9

5. W hen Lieutenant Commander Dick Stratton (USN), a pilot aboard the USS Ticonderoga , was shot down over North Vietnam in January 1967, he was quickly captured and confined in Hoa Lo prison—more commonly known as the “Hanoi Hilton.” He was placed in an isolation cell where he was beaten, tortured, and starved. One morning in the isola- tion wing shortly after his capture, one of the other prisoners, Paul Galanti, who was assigned to pick up prisoners’ soup bowls and buckets of excre- ment, made contact with Stratton. After teaching him a coded series of coughs, Galanti’s first questions were whether Stratton was Air Force or Navy and what his rank was. When Galanti, a Naval Academy graduate, discovered that Stratton was Navy, the next question he asked was, “Do you know who won the Army-Navy game?” Navy Captain James Stockdale (USNA ’47), one of the senior ranking officers among the prisoners, and later a Medal of Honor winner for his heroic leadership in prison, had created several rules that Stratton quickly learned: First, communicate at all costs. Second, when they get around to torturing you, hold out as long as you can, bounce back, and make them do it all over again. Third, don’t despair when they break you; they have broken everyone. Finally, pray. Stockdale had been through it all himself: beatings, torture, starvation, and isolation. He knew what the more junior INTRODUCTION 1 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies . Click here for terms of use.

6. prisoners could take and he knew what they had to do to remain alive. His rules saved lives. The rules in the “Hanoi Hilton” were quite simple. “To lead was to be tortured. To communicate with a fellow prisoner was a de facto sign of leadership that resulted in torture. To fail to bow was to be beaten and tortured. To fail to do exactly what you were told when you were told was to be tortured. Medical attention was reserved for those who might have some propaganda value. Food and water were rationed out only to the extent required to keep a prisoner alive. Lenient and humane treatment was defined as permitting you to live.” As Stratton became acclimated to this hostile new world and the rules for survival put out by Captain Stockdale, he became increasingly impressed with the Naval Academy graduates, who led their peers in these most austere and dangerous of circumstances. Termed Boat School Boys , the “Hanoi Hilton’s” academy graduates distinguished themselves as tough, resilient, and courageous leaders. Many would later say that the lessons the United States Naval Academy (USNA) taught them were played out on the Vietnamese repeatedly and to great effect. For example, Jerry Den- ton, a Boat School Boy, blinked out “torture” in Morse Code with his eyes during a filmed propaganda session, while another Boat School Boy showed an inverted Hawaiian Peace sign in a photo on the cover of Life magazine. John McCain, class of ’58, seriously injured and on a stretcher, refused the offer of an early release at a time when the prisoners’ own inter- nal policy for release would have let him go with honor. For Stratton, the Boat School Boys were lifesavers because of unflinching leadership and inspiration through personal example. The United States Naval Academy is in the business of forming a group of leaders of men and women, a class of warriors, who are willing to sacri- fice their treasure, their bodies, and their very lives for the Constitution and for the citizens of the United States. After the war, Stratton reflected that the product of the Naval Academy was a person who would do the right thing for no other reason than that it was the right thing to do. The prod- uct was a person who represented the nation well, no matter what port he or she entered or what sea he or she sailed upon. The greatest accolade given the United States Naval Academy in the “Hanoi Hilton” was by the enemy camp commander, Major Bui, who told John McCain when the Major found out McCain was the son of the Commander in Chief, Pacific, BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 2

19. vision, inoculating leaders for stress, learning loyalty, the importance of preparation, leading by example, the importance of emotional competence, empowerment-focused leadership, and prizing diversity. We end each chapter with a section titled “The Gouge.” In Navy- speak, the gouge is the synopsis or abbreviated version—the executive sum- mary or the crucial take away. Although we hope each chapter offers some new insight when it comes to training leaders, you will get a sense of the crucial lessons midshipmen learn in each area of leadership by scanning the gouge. A FEW WORDS ABOUT YOUR AUTHORS I, Brad Johnson, am a professor in the USNA department of Leadership, Ethics, and Law. A psychologist by profession, my job is to blend cutting- edge research from the behavioral sciences with the Academy’s tried-and- true approach to building naval officers. A former Navy Lieutenant, I was stationed at Bethesda Naval Hospital and Pearl Harbor Naval Medical Clinic. My years as an officer, psychologist, and professor to midshipmen have given me a unique academic and consulting vantage point from which to observe the process of leader building. I, Greg Harper, am a Naval Academy graduate and was a career Naval Officer before retiring as a Captain. I spent my operational tours in the Patrol Aviation (VP) community culminating as Commanding Officer of Patrol Squadron Sixteen. During my career, I served two tours at the Academy teaching both times in the History and Political Science depart- ments and also served as the First Battalion Officer in Bancroft Hall. Recently, I served three years as a civilian as the Leadership Fellow teach- ing in the Leadership Department. I have taught midshipmen leadership both in the classroom and in Bancroft Hall, where classroom lessons learned are exercised in real life. I have observed midshipmen practice leadership both in and out of the class- room and like Brad have a unique vantage point for watching midship- men become leaders the Annapolis way. Of course, everything in this book is a product of our own experience and perspective. Nothing herein reflects any official policy of the United States Naval Academy. INTRODUCTION 15

12. NOT JUST ANY LEADERSHIP SCHOOL At Navy our mission is to prepare warriors who can do it all. Writing about the sort of officer we work to produce, Admiral John Bulkeley once wrote: For in my mind, there is but one honorable profession [naval officership]. It requires the daily attention of all faculties, the persistence of a bulldog, the compassion of a man of the cloth, foresight entrenched in previously learned lessons, the willing- ness to sacrifice for the good of the service all that has been personally gained or earned, an unyielding belief that it is better to preserve peace than to wage war, the self force-feeding of knowledge and new technology, the ability to blend confidence and humility, and the unyielding conviction that it is far greater to serve one’s country rather than oneself. Our mission is to produce leaders that fulfill these requirements—lead- ers like Navy Commander William C. McCool. Graduating second of 1083 in the USNA class of 1983, he was captain of the track team and proven leader of both peers and junior midshipmen. Smart, humble, car- ing, tenacious, and deeply loyal to the mission of the United States Navy, CDR McCool went on to earn innumerable awards and medals as a jet pilot, and, later, as a test pilot for the Navy. Serving as an officer on board the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN-65) in 1996, CDR McCool learned that NASA had selected him for the astronaut program. One of NASA’s rising stars, CDR McCool was selected to pilot the space shuttle Columbia on a 16-day mission. In the early morning hours of February 1, 2003, somewhere over the southern United States, this mission came to an abrupt and tragic end when the shuttle broke up on reentry and the entire crew was lost. In retrospect, those closest to CDR McCool empha- sized that he died doing exactly what he loved and that his commitment to the mission of the United States Navy and NASA was unshakable. USNA’s singular mission creates a particularly profound bond among midshipmen themselves. These young leaders understand intuitively that a sobering and sacred mission binds them. They grasp the gravity and import of their call to duty and therefore become much more closely bonded than ordinary college students. When, in 1963, Roger Staubach received the Heisman Trophy, he reflected, “One of the greatest things BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 8

14. each year. With average SATs well over 1300, the vast majority are extremely fit varsity athletes, ranked at or near the top of their high school classes, and nominated by a U.S. congressman. These are sharp folks. Rep- resenting every state and territory of our great nation, our students have shown a strong propensity for leadership, self-motivation, ambition, and service to others even before arriving at our gates. It goes without saying that any young man or woman who selects USNA over the nation’s other elite undergraduate schools is looking for something different. They are drawn by the promise of extreme challenge— mentally, physically, and personally. They are turned off by the mundane, the routine, and the ordinary. Although not certain they have what it takes to persevere and graduate USNA, they revel in the quest. When we set out to create a specific kind of leader in our graduates, we have a different sort of motivation from most colleges around the coun- try. We are contributing to the future of our own organization. The men and women sitting in our classes and marching the hallowed grounds around Annapolis today will be our commanders, captains, and admirals of tomorrow. We remember one superintendent who, in his annual briefing to the faculty, said that we should look around the Yard at the midshipmen as we walked to class, for somewhere out there were 12 to 13 future four- star admirals who would be leading the fleet one day. Writing just after USNA’s centennial in 1946, R.S. West wrote this about the unusual per- spective of USNA superintendents: In many ways their job parallels that of dozens of presidents or superintendents of civilian technical colleges. But unlike the lat- ter, they feel a much more keen and justifiably selfish interest in the success of their graduates.... They may someday be junior officers under him in battle. BORN OF A LEADERSHIP FAILURE Although the Naval Academy was not founded until 1845, “midshipmen,” or apprentice officers, were first appointed to American ships in 1775. The term midshipman was borrowed from the British fleet. On Britain’s mon- strous wooden ships of the 1700s, specialized seamen were stationed amid BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 10

16. On September 13, 1842, the Somers set sail from Brooklyn, New York, to the shores of Africa. On board were 7 midshipmen and 114 other crew members. In November, as the ship made its way home, 19-year-old Philip Spencer (the son of the U. S. Secretary of War, John Canfield Spencer) was accused by the ship’s captain, Commander Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, of plotting a mutiny in collaboration with at least two other sailors. Notes writ- ten in Spencer’s own hand appeared to confirm these mutinous intentions. In a hastily assembled court of inquiry, Spencer and his two seamen associ- ates were found guilty of an attempt to commit mutiny. The three men were hanged to death at the ship’s yardarm later that very day. Upon the return of the Somers to the United States the following month, there was a strong outcry from members of Congress, the Secretary of War, and others regarding the wisdom of sending midshipmen directly aboard ship to learn in the school of hard knocks. In fact, the entire coun- try was shocked by the hanging of a midshipman, and in spite of the con- tinuing conviction of some senior naval officers that formal education was entirely irrelevant to the training of officers, the country, the government, and the Navy understood the risks of failing to prepare midshipmen for the strains and demands of leadership at sea. Through the efforts of then secretary of the Navy, George Bancroft, the Naval School was established at an old Army post named Fort Severn in Annapolis on October 10, 1845. With 50 students and 7 professors that first year, the school began preparing officers versed in navigation, seaman- ship, gunnery, steam propulsion, chemistry, mathematics, English, philos- ophy, and French. In 1850 the institution was formally named the United States Naval Academy and a curriculum was established that required mid- shipmen to study at the Academy for 4 years and train aboard ships in the fleet each summer. Although the current student body numbers more than 4000, and although the Academy grounds cover more than 338 acres, this early idea of blending academic and applied training has never changed. LEADERSHIP THE NAVY WAY Many institutions of higher learning these days are reluctant to claim lead- ership as an academic specialty or as an area of applied training. Some are BECOMING A LEADER THE ANNAPOLIS WAY 12

15. ships for the purpose of relaying orders between officers on the bow and in the stern. Regarded as having more authority than ordinary seamen, midshipmen came to be seen as junior officers, and this became the appren- tice route to a commission in the Navy. In the early American Navy, mid- shipmen had no formal education and those in command often neglected their training and preparation for commissioning. Until 1845, the lives of midshipmen were often painful and left to the whims of hardened sea-going veterans of the service: The first midshipmen of the regular navy came under the com- mand and influence of men who were products of the hardest kind of experience the sea could offer. Their officers had come up through service in the British Navy, in colonial naval ves- sels, in privateers, and the merchant marine. They were men, toughened by years before the mast, who did not hesitate to enforce their orders with their fists or to have a man’s back laid raw by the cat-o-nine-tails. The life was rugged, the duty was hard, and the chances for learning enough to win a commission depended almost wholly on the individual midshipman’s deter- mination to make the most of his opportunities. Even without any formal program of education or training, however, midshipmen of the United States Navy established themselves as capable and courageous young men—often earning the respect of senior naval offi- cers. One of these midshipmen was James Jarvis, assigned to the Constel- lation in her battle with the British ship Vengeance . Historians note that: “Jarvis clung to his station in the ship’s maintop, even though the rigging had been destroyed and the mast left unsupported. When warned of the danger, he said ‘If the mast goes, we go with it.’ It fell and Jarvis and his men were lost.” It is a credit to the quality and tenacity of midshipmen of this era that so many of them weathered the harsh and disorganized system of training then prevalent in the fleet, successfully dispatched their duties as midshipmen, and went on to positions of leadership in our nation’s early navy. In fact, this entirely informal system of leader development might have persisted for quite some time were it not for the U.S. ship Somers and the tragic events that unfolded on her decks in the fall of 1842. INTRODUCTION 11

2. Introducción de “ Becoming a Leader, The Annapolis Way”, de W. Brad Johnson y Gregory P. Harper Leandro Ezequiel Nonide Capitán de Fragata Asesor de la Armada Argentina en la Academia de Guerra Naval Becoming a Leader, the Annapolis Way es un libro de los autores W. Brad Johnson y Gregory P. Harper, que si bien como dejan expresado en el prefacio de éste, no constituye la visión de la Academia Naval de la Marina de los Estados Unidos, está nutrido por experiencias reales de liderazgo en operaciones y forma ya parte del currículo de liderazgo de dicha academia naval “Becoming a Leader the Annapolis Way”, es una guía para aquellos que quieren construir líderes en cualquier organización, incluso en organizaciones civiles o en cualquier orden de la vida, son consejos útiles y prácticos de casos reales donde se disgregan los ingredientes claves del liderazgo. A lo largo del libro se ven doce ejemplos de liderazgo que no están relacionados entre sí. Los autores han tomado las mejores lecciones de liderazgo de los cuatro años de currículo en la Academia Naval y los ha resumido para esta guía de uso inmediato y de fácil visualización y comprensión, este libro les dará una mirada privilegiada sobre cómo el líder puede ser nutrido y desarrollado, y cómo los grandes hombres y mujeres pueden convertirse en líderes competentes a través del trabajo duro y la atención al detalle. Esta guía cubre los siguientes temas entre otros: la realización de líderes, la importancia del compromiso, aprendizaje, desarrollo de carácter, liderazgo en crisis, aprendizaje de la lealtad, la importancia de la preparación, el ejemplo, creación de la visión, la importancia de la competencia emocional En la introducción podemos percibir el “espíritu” del libro, se presenta con un sencillo e impactante ejemplo la importancia de los valores y las tradiciones inculcadas por la Marina y donde sin importar nacionalidades encontramos un vínculo y un punto en común. Bibliografía Johnson, W. B., & Harper, G. P. (2004). Becoming a Leader the Annapolis Way: 12 Combat Lessons from the Navy’s Leadership Laboratory . McGraw Hill Professional. Descargo: Las opiniones expresadas en este documento son de exclusiva responsabilidad de sus autores y no necesariamente representan la opinión de la Academia de Guerra Naval o la Armada del Ecuador.

1. ARMADA DEL ECUADOR ACADEMIA DE GUERRA NAVAL Guayaquil -o- LECTURAS RECOMENDADAS INTRODUCCIÓN DE “BECOMING A LEADER, THE ANNAPOLIS WAY” W. BRAD JOHNSON Y GREGORY P. HARPER Lectura Recomendada por : CPFG Leandro Ezequiel Nonide Asesor de la Armada Argentina en la Academia de Guerra Naval 2 020

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